Cytochrome C monoclonal antibody is a form of antibody that works on protein and transport electrons. With the antibody, the mouse, rat, and human origin protein can be detected. Cytochrome C antibody is a category of the cytochrome C products essential in protein detection.
What is Cytochrome C
This is a heme protein that can be found in the compartment that is between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Here, its function is to transfer electrons from complex 3 to complex 4 of the respiratory chain. It is a key protein responsible for the initiation of intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
With the application of glucose metabolism, cytochrome C also passes through antiapoptotic modification. It is a small water-soluble protein, and it has a molecular value of over 11,000. Cytochrome C can be shredded from the mitochondrial membrane where it is localized, making it regarded as a peripheral protein membrane.
Approximately, cytochrome C is said to be spherical. It is connected with certain binding sites on integral membrane proteins that extend from the membrane protein surface, and it is one of the examples of soluble proteins that binds to this integral.
The amino acid sequence of the protein moiety was one of the first sequences that can be elucidated. In the electron transport chain that cytochrome is part of, the electron transport is also part of the pathways for ATP synthesis.
In transporting electrons, the involved donor is the cytochrome c-1, while the electron acceptor is cytochrome c-oxidase. As an electron carrier, cytochrome C has established functions in the respiratory chain, but there are other roles for cytochrome c discovered.
Functions of Cytochrome C beyond respiratory
It is one of the mitochondrial proteins released into cytosol upon cell activation by the apoptotic stimulus. Other roles of cytochrome are,
- Cytochrome c engages the apoptotic proteases activating factor-1 (APAF-1) in the cytosol, resulting in the formation of apoptosome that activates caspase-9.
- Cytochrome C occurs in two separate positions: the mobilization from the mitochondrial intermembrane and the translocation through the outer mitochondrial membrane.
- Cytochrome C and cytochrome C meditated apoptosis are governed by multiple regulation layers, with B-cells and lymphoma protein-2 as the key influencers.
What is an Antibody
Antibody belongs to a class of protein known as immunoglobulin. It is made of specialized white blood cells that identify and neutralize strange substances to the immune system. Different antibodies have unique makeups that bind specifically to complex chemical signatures known as antigens.
These antigens can be found on the outer layers of invasive pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. The binding can result in two immune responses, the dominion-effect of changes known as complement system of signaling in the body and the opsonization, which recruits white blood cells, phagocytes that ingest and digest targeted materials.
Usage of antibodies in medicine
In the medical field, antibodies can be used either directly or indirectly to treat diseases, preventative medicine, or diagnosis. Through vaccines, B-cells are provoked into making and preserving antibodies. This is done through the introduction of antigens to prevent future infections.
Specific or monoclonal antibodies like the vimentin antibody can be generated outside the body for therapies against infections or diseases already existing. Monoclonal antibodies can be applied to laboratory samples to detect antigens in the test substances.
Cytochrome C (37BA11) monoclonal antibody
Cytochrome C antibody is a high-quality monoclonal antibody-like glut one antibody suitable for detecting cytochrome protein that has its origin in mice, rats, or humans. It can be found as the non-conjugated anti-cytochrome C antibody form. It is also available in multiple conjugate forms of anti-cytochrome C antibody, including HRP, PE, FITC, and multiple Alexa Fluor® conjugates.
Cytochrome C has been characterized as a mobile electron responsible for transporting electron protein that is key to the conversion of energy in all aerobic organisms. Cytosolic cytochrome C has been identified as a factor that necessitates the activation of apoptosis.
As Cytochrome C is translocated to the cytosol during apoptosis, it activates caspase-3 (CPP-32). Translocation of Cytochrome C is prevented by the overexpression of Bcl-2, which blocks the apoptotic process. On the other hand, overexpression of Bax induces the release of cytochrome C and cell death.
When there is the release of cytochrome C from mitochondrial, it triggers an apoptotic cascade resulting in the binding of Apaf-1 to Apaf-3 (caspase-9) in a way that is dependent on cytochrome C. This leads to caspase-9 cleavage of caspase-3.
Cytochrome C monoclonal antibody (37BA11) has a concentration of 100 µg at 1 mg/ml with a purity level of IgG fraction. The antibody reacts with mouse, Rat, Cow, Human, Bovine, and Caenorhabditis elegans. The protocols for this antibody suitable with it are flow cytometry protocols, immunocytochemistry/ immunofluorescence p